Impact Pricing Podcast

Ep194: How Accountants Should Price their Services with Geraldine Carter

Geraldine Carter runs She Thinks Big Coaching where she helps CPAs do less without sacrificing revenue. Although her target market are CPAs, she actually has a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Cornell University. She was also a cycling guide for Backroads and now hosts her own podcast called The Business Strategy for CPAs.

In this episode, she talks about the structure of pricing in the accounting industry and the reason why most CPAs are underpriced. She then discusses her so called “effortless value” where accountants could earn more without having to do extra work. Finally, she shares her tips on how accountants could earn more by having expertise and charging their clients more.

Why you have to check out today’s podcast:

  • Learn why you should have a deep expertise instead of being a generalist
  • Acquire techniques on how to increase your value without doing more
  • Discover the reason why charging more is better for you and your clients

 

“It’s good for your clients to charge them more.”

Geraldine Carter

 

Topics Covered:

01:33 – How Geraldine got into pricing

03:10 – The problem of pricing in the accounting industry

05:24 – What is Menu Pricing and its difference from Subscription Pricing

09:16 – CPAs are not a subscription

10:11 – How “billing” works in CPAs

11:56 – The prevailing mindset among CPAs

13:11 – Why having a deep expertise is essential in getting better prices

17:04 – The mindset that needs to be changed in the accounting industry

17:54 – What is “Effortless Value”

20:49 – Geraldine’s bicycling pricing story

24:06 – Pricing table topics: Subscriptions have three revenue buckets: win, keep, and grow. Manage all three.

27:51 – Geraldine’s pricing advice

 

Key Takeaways: 

“You can legitimately be given the marketplace and the absence of segmentation, become an expert and have expertise that the client cannot find anywhere else, either in their zip code or on the Internet. It just doesn’t exist. There’s so little competition that if you in fact do have deep expertise.” – Geraldine Carter

“Effortless value is this idea of going through your business and looking at all the ways you could improve. You could add value to your clients experience without it being more work.” – Geraldine Carter

“Your buyers take your price as a signal of quality. And if it is not high enough for what they are expecting to pay, they will keep on walking.” – Geraldine Carter

“If your delivery is dialed in and your clients are delighted and you make good on your promise, they will continue to stay.” – Geraldine Carter

 

People / Resources Mentioned:

Connect with Geraldine Carter:

Connect with Mark Stiving:   

 

Full Interview Transcript

(Note: This transcript was created with an AI transcription service. Please forgive any transcription or grammatical errors. We probably sounded better in real life.)

Geraldine Carter

It’s good for your clients to charge them more.

[Intro]

Mark Stiving

Today’s podcast is sponsored by Jennings Executive Search. I had a great conversation with John Jennings about the skills needed in different pricing roles. He and I think a lot alike. If you’re looking for a new pricing role, or if you’re trying to hire just the right pricing person, I strongly suggest you reach out to Jennings Executive Search. They specialize in placing pricing people. Say that three times fast.

Welcome to Impact Pricing, the podcast where we discuss pricing, value, and the methodical relationship between them. I’m Mark Saving and today our guest is Geraldine Carter. Here are three things you’d want to know about Geraldine before we start: She runs She Thinks Big Coaching and it target CPAs. This will be fun. She’s the host of the Smart Strategy for CPAs podcast, and she’s been kind enough to have me on there in the past. She has a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Cornell and never done anything with it. Oh, my favorite thing is she was a cycling guide around the world for Backroads. Welcome, Geraldine.

Geraldine Carter

Hi, Mark. Thanks so much for having me. Happy to be with you.

Mark Stiving

Oh, it’s going to be fun. Okay, so just before we started, I said you weren’t a pricing expert; you said you were, and it’s like “Oh, I didn’t think that”. So how did you get into pricing? Because I think of you as a CPA coach, not a pricing expert.

Geraldine Carter

Yeah. I didn’t say that I was a pricing expert, but what I stopped you on was that I didn’t say that I wasn’t. I wouldn’t consider myself, first and foremost, a pricing expert. But we absolutely do a lot of pricing with CPAs to help them lift their prices because they are woefully underpriced. They come from an hourly billing space and they tend to do cost plus, and they’re just leaving piles and piles of profits all over the table. So, we help them fix that problem.

But how did I get into pricing? I started out when I first saw that CPAs were working 70 hours a week and they’re smart people. I thought, “What’s going on here? Why is this happening?” And I just followed my curiosity and started poking around under the hood. And it was then that I saw that they were doing this hourly billing thing. And at the time, I was listening to a lot of Jonathan Stark and Ron Baker, who you’ve had on your show, and understanding that just how bad hourly billing is for their businesses got me curious. And so, I started paying attention to pricing in their space and what their better options were. So that was my sort of pathway in.

Mark Stiving

Got it. And so, do you think most of CPA’s problems revolve around – I’ll say the word “pricing” – but let’s make that fit: “business model”?

Geraldine Carter

Do I think most of their problems revolve around pricing? A third of their problems revolve around pricing. But the other two thirds are that they tend to be generalists instead of specialists or experts in a certain space which is related to hourly billing. Because when you get paid by the hour, it doesn’t matter what you do and who you do it for. Those two are connected up.

But when you go price, now, suddenly you’re forced to think about what is the outcome that you solve in the value of the outcome. So, there’s that piece, and then they tend to deliver services and deliverables, like P&L and a balance sheet, or cash flow forecast, or cross aggregation, or revenue recognition. And buyers don’t care about those things. They don’t even know what those things mean or what they do. So, we have to get the CPA reoriented to talking not just in plain English, but in their buyer’s English about what those things, what are the business outcomes that those deliverables help lead to.

Mark Stiving

Oh, my God. I love those answers. And I’m going to translate your answers into what I would call “generic pricing answers”, if I may.

Geraldine Carter

Sure.

Mark Stiving

And so, your number two, I would have said was, okay, remind me what your number two was real fast.

Geraldine Carter

I think number two would have been generalism.

Mark Stiving

Focus, yes. I would call that market segmentation. And the more we focus on a specific market segment, the better we’re able to create products, understand their willingness to pay, create marketing messages. Focus is huge. And I’m sure that’s true with the CPAs as well. And then the third one was – I should be writing these down.

Geraldine Carter

Services, delivering services and deliverables, P&L, Balance sheet, three-way cash flow forecast, instead of outcomes.

Mark Stiving

And I think I just wrote a book on that, called “Selling Value”, which is all about how do we describe value to our customers in a way that’s not just “Hey, let’s talk about our features. Let’s talk about what we delivered. Let’s talk about what actually matters to our customers.”

Geraldine Carter

Exactly. Yep.

Mark Stiving

Perfect. So, even though you may not think they’re pricing, I think they’re pricing. So, what is that?

Geraldine Carter

I think of them as all being three legs of the same stool. And if you’re missing any one of them, you don’t want to sit down.

Mark Stiving

Yes, absolutely. Okay, so when I asked you what you were passionate about, you said menu and flat rate. So, let’s cover those two quickly. But I want to get to the last one quickly. So, what do you mean when you say menu pricing?

Geraldine Carter
Same thing as tiers. Bronze, silver, gold. Good, better, best.

Mark Stiving

You like the idea of accountants offering good, better, best type pricing?

Geraldine Carter

It’s not so much that I like it. It’s just that it works for them and it works for them because they tend to deliver ongoing monthly services and there can be a lot of a la carte kind of stuff packed into what they do and if they come from an hourly billing mindset, and so if were to shift them out of that mindset, and get them into a pricing model that works for them, bronze, silver, gold works really well provided that we push the value out first so that the price has room to go way up. And then we can design the package of what’s included in bronze, what’s included in silver, what’s included in gold, and who is each one of these optimally designed for. And when we push the price out far enough, then it helps alleviate the pain of the minutia of the a la carte. “What do I put in the bronze?” Because they can get wrapped up in “Do I put accounts payable in bronze or do I also put it in silver?” And “Do I put a three-way forecast in silver?” It should definitely go in gold, and they can get caught in the “Does this small deliverable belong in one of these things?” But when we go bronze, silver, gold, push the price high enough, then it matters much less about the small details and or just focusing on the buyer instead.

Mark Stiving

And so, I’m inferring from your answer that this is subscription type pricing.

Geraldine Carter

This is a great question. This is where we get caught in the definition, the exact definition of subscription, who holds it, what is it? And I think of it as ongoing monthly services. What I don’t think of it as is subscription in terms of like Netflix where you have access to a vault of information. Although we do aim to include that, especially in the gold. But most accountants and CPAs are not yet – let me say it like this: There’s this whole conversation happening around subscription in the sort of Netflix model and all the ways you can do a subscription. But most accountants and CPAs aren’t even there yet. We need to get them focused on a market segment like you call it. We need to get them focusing on value for their clients, outcomes, and those things. So, we start first with menu pricing, and 18 months down the line we can talk about subscription. But they’re just not there yet in the sort of Netflix kind of way.

Mark Stiving

And so, you’re thinking of menu pricing as “I’m going to go have a transaction with a potential customer and we’re going to go deliver whatever it is that we promise to deliver. And then I’m going to go have another transaction if possible, or we’re going to go deliver that.” And in a lot of ways in the world of… Let’s take away the word “subscription” for a second, and we just think about recurring revenue. Recurring revenue says, “I’ve pleased my customers so much, they buy from me all the time”. “I used to buy Diet Coke all the time”. Right? And so, it was I never had a subscription, but Coke got a lot of recurring revenue from me. And so, in a lot of ways, that’s exactly what you’re talking about.

Geraldine Carter

Yes. Although you weren’t signed up with Coke to buy from them every month where you paid coke upfront and they delivered a box to your door. But yes. So yes and no.

Mark Stiving

I think the subscription model is what I sign up for you to do something every month and I pay you every month. And the non-subscription transaction model is I’m going to go sell it every month. The second and third months are easier to sell than the first month. I’ll buy that.

Geraldine Carter

Yeah. I wonder if this gets into just the semantics of the word subscription. And in this case, there’s actual services that get delivered. Not that there wouldn’t be if you subscribe to a magazine or subscribe to Netflix or subscribe to some kind of educational piece of content. But I don’t think most clients of CPAs would say that they’re subscribed to their CPA.

Mark Stiving

Right. But they still pay the monthly.

Geraldine Carter

But they do still pay their monthly well. So yes, they pay the monthly for monthly accounting services and forecasting and so on. So, yes.

Mark Stiving

And so, it’s this recurring stream that we’ve put together for services that we’re offering. Now, how do you have the monthly bill be different month by month if you’re offering good, better, best packages?

Geraldine Carter

I’m not sure I understand your question. The bill would be the same, but it wouldn’t be a bill. It would be invoiced, paid in advance, ACH. And the client chooses if they want to be in bronze, silver or gold.

Mark Stiving

Okay, I’m really confused. How is this not a subscription?

Geraldine Carter

It depends on who you’re asking. And what’s subscription? Who’s defining subscription? I don’t think the clients of CPAs are going to think of it as a subscription. But if you define subscription as a monthly recurring revenue, then we can call it subscription.

Mark Stiving

Well, and I would think of that as subscription. It’s monthly recurring revenue. You’ve signed up, you’ve committed for a year, or even if you haven’t, even if you pay month by month, each month you pay and you’re going to get the same set of services that are possible to be delivered to you. And it’s a consistent price. So, I don’t see how that’s not a subscription.

Geraldine Carter

I’m not here to be the arbiter of what is subscription and what’s not.

Mark Stiving

You’re just. You just don’t want to step on anybody’s toes, I guess.

Geraldine Carter

Well, no, it’s just that clients won’t think of it. They won’t. I don’t think any client of a CPA is thinking of it as a subscription. So, value is in the eye of the beholder. Then what do we do with the clients who don’t think of it as a subscription? I’m neither here nor there about it, honestly.

Mark Stiving

Yeah.

Geraldine Carter

But it’s just that they don’t think about it that way.

Mark Stiving

I think it’s perfectly legit not to say the word subscription to a client. But when we run our business, we’re running it like it’s a subscription business. And so, we need to be thinking all the things we know about subscriptions. We want to be thinking about those types of things. That is what I would say about it.

Geraldine Carter
And the thing that I would add that makes a slight distinction in my own mind is the low margin pay for work versus the high margin pay for expertise. And where we are currently in the accounting space is still the low margin pay for work and there’s a vacuum of high margin pay for expertise without delivery of work because the CPA, the accountant, is still very much tied to “I get paid to do work and provide deliverables”. They haven’t divorced their own mindset and haven’t divorced in their own mind. “I get paid for creating value and it doesn’t matter how much work I do or not do for my client. My job is to create value for them.” So, in the accounting space, we still haven’t gotten up into that stratosphere of getting paid simply for value, divorced of effort, work and deliverables.

Mark Stiving

I dearly love what you just said. It’s almost always the mindset of the I’m going to say the word solopreneur, but you could say accountants, which is absolutely fine. But I would want to push back in here how you address this next issue. And that is let’s say you’ve convinced me that I’m going to charge for value, and I know that I’m delivering a ton of value to a client. Why can’t the client go by that same value from some other CPA? Who’s going to charge them by the hour?

Geraldine Carter

Do your whole question again.

Mark Stiving

Okay. I’ll even put numbers that I’m just going to pretend that I know the numbers. Right. I’m going to deliver $1,000,000 worth of value to a client. I want to charge them a big number. I’m going to charge them $50,000. And yet that client could go to another CPA, get them to charge them $100 an hour and do it in 10 hours. So that’s $1,000 instead of $50,000. How do I get them to pay me $50,000 for my million-dollars worth of value?

Geraldine Carter

Do something different than the buyer can buy for $10,000 at an hourly rate.

Mark Stiving

I love the answer. Is that feasible?

Geraldine Carter

Oh, yeah.

Mark Stiving

Okay. How does a CPA demonstrate that they can do this and another CPA can’t?

Geraldine Carter

This gets into market segmentation and what I call generalism versus niching. And most accountants, most CPAs are generalists, even when they say they niche into and then they’ll list six industries that they niche into even though they’re one person. And when they are in that space, of course, you know this; they suppress their expertise. They have shallow expertise, right? It’s an inch deep, it’s mile wide. If they go deep, then they can become real, true experts. Doesn’t happen overnight. Takes a few years. I talked about this with Josh Lance, who niched into breweries, on my podcast. He had the same experience, takes 2 to 3 years to develop deep expertise. But when you do, and you’re the only one and in the accounting space, this is like California Gold Rush 1848. There are so few people niching that you can just go to the Sierra Nevadas, find a river, park your boat, get your pan, and just sit there and pan for gold. So, you can legitimately be given the marketplace and the absence of segmentation, become an expert and have expertise that the client cannot find anywhere else, either in their zip code or on the Internet. It just doesn’t exist. There’s so little competition that if you in fact do have deep expertise, it would be very difficult for the average client to go find it next door for an hourly rate of one fifth the price.

Mark Stiving

Can I say that is possibly the single best answer anybody has ever given on my podcast?

Geraldine Carter

Yeah, of course.

Mark Stiving

That was absolutely brilliant. And essentially, it’s just saying, in this world of CPAs, so few people specialize that if you are truly a specialist, you are the only person who can deliver that value.

Geraldine Carter

And that is exactly where I take my clients – is there’s so little competition. And even if there are three, five, 20 other CPAs in the entire country in that market segment, you have so much room on the dance floor that you are not going to bump into them. You have a different audience. You have different people. You have a different style, a different personality. There’s plenty of room for you to maneuver. So, I think it is a great time to be a CPA if you can get your head into this space. And therein lies the challenge.

Mark Stiving

He’s getting your head out of hourly billing and into “How am I adding value to this specific market segment that I’m focused on?”

Geraldine Carter

The fingerprints of hourly billing are all over this industry. They’re baked into the operations. They’re baked into the mindset of the owner. They’re just everywhere. And it came up this morning in a conversation where a CPA said “We want to grow. We need to double our revenue. But in order to do that, we need to double our staff”, which is an indication that revenue comes from work and we need staff to provide it. And they say things like that that reveal their thinking. It’s hard to add value without incurring cost. That is a direct quote from a CPA just this morning. It’s hard to add value without incurring cost. So that’s the kind of thinking that we need undo.

Mark Stiving

Absolutely. Okay, I think it might be the same answer. But the third thing you said to me when you said “These are the three things I’m passionate about” is “Mostly, I love effortless value.” What do you mean when you say that?

Geraldine Carter

You talk a lot about value, right? And what is value? Where does it come from? And of course, how do we create it? Because it’s the pursuit of value creation that is going to create revenue down the line. You capture it with your prices. And because, as we’ve been talking about my audience of CPAs is very much focused on, or tied to the belief that money comes from work, I try and spin it the opposite way that you can create value that doesn’t take effort. And for my people, that looks like particularly improving the experience of working with the client, having the client’s experience be improved. That includes the onboarding process. How much friction is there? How much hassle is there? What’s the communication like? How clear is the communication? Do you need to play email tennis three or four times back and forth in order for the client to understand? How timely is the communication? Does the answer come in five days or 20 days or 5 hours or 2 hours? If you’re going to answer the question either way, which one is more valuable to your client? The answer in 20 days? Or the answer at the end of the day? You’re going to answer the question either way, you might as well find a way that has more value. So, effortless value is this idea of going through your business and looking at all the ways you could improve. You could add value to your clients experience without it being more work. So, we go through the onboarding process, we go through the delivery process and all those places, and we look for the ways that they can add more value without having to work harder. And of course, we also uncover all the things they know they could be doing to help their clients increase profit, but in air quotes they don’t have time for, which is another sort of vestige fingerprint of hourly billing. “I don’t have time to help my clients make more money,” so, we undo that.

Mark Stiving

Nice. And it almost sounds like in a way, you’re saying you already do these things. Let’s prioritize them, do them in the right order at the right time. That adds value to your clients and it doesn’t cost you anything more for that additional value.

Geraldine Carter

It’s exactly that. You’re already doing these things. It doesn’t cost you anything extra. You add value, your prices go up, your margins go up. And now when your margins go up, you have more time. You look at which of your clients are low margin and let’s get the disengagement letter ready and warm and put stamps on the envelopes and let’s start pushing those things out.

Mark Stiving

Nice. I love talking to you, Geraldine. But before we started, you teased me with a. “Oh, if you ask the right question, I’ll tell you a bicycling pricing story.” So, here’s the question. Would you please tell us a bicycling pricing story?

Geraldine Carter

Okay, it’s like a left turn now.

Mark Stiving

That’s okay. Let’s make the left turn because I want to hear the story.

Geraldine Carter

Yeah, so make the screeching noise.

Mark Stiving

Let’s go.

Geraldine Carter

Well, so what are the pricing stories that I tell my clients? Because they’re accountants and they tend to think in debits and credits and they tend to think that my client paying me money is bad for them and that having them pay me more is bad for them. So, they tend to go in the direction of price suppression. And so, I tell them the story of this: One time I was riding my bike in China, you know, as one does. And I was prepared for summer only. So, all I had was summer clothes in my panniers. And I had a cold snap in Kunming, a city of 8 million that you’ve never heard of. And I went into the store to find some sweat pants. And mind you, I’m five nine. I’m not small. So, finding clothes in Asia for me was always a challenge. But I found a pair of sweat pants, and they were soft and fuzzy, and they fit perfectly. And I was like, “This is great”. And they were Adidas, and maybe they were knockoffs, but whatever. I didn’t care. I was like, “These are perfect. This is exactly what I need”. It was 45 degrees. I had bare legs. And I was about to take them off the rack to go bring them up to the register. And I looked at the price tag and they were $0.80. And these sweatpants in the U.S. would have run me $40, $60. Who knows? And my thought was, “What’s wrong with these sweatpants?” And I get the conversion rate and all this, but still $0.80. And my first thought was, “What is wrong with these?” And then, of course, my brain went on a tear and I looked up at the ceiling to see if there are cameras like “Was I involved in some trap?” Which obviously not, no. But I couldn’t get my head off of what is wrong with these sweatpants. Am I going to walk out of the store and they’re going to unravel on me? Are they going to disintegrate in the rain? Why are they so cheap? So, I did what any logical person would do. I put the sweatpants back on the rack and me and my goose bumps walked out of the store without buying them because they were too cheap. And this is what so many sellers fail to appreciate: is that your buyers take your price as a signal of quality. And if it is not high enough for what they are expecting to pay, they will keep on walking. My people, of course, do this very same thing because they think that low cost is better for their clients. But oftentimes the inverse is true that higher prices are better for their clients.

Mark Stiving

Fabulous story. Now, my question is, it’s only $0.80. You couldn’t risk $0.80?

Geraldine Carter

I was sure that I could have risked $0.80. But, you know, space comes at a premium when you have to tiny panniers. So, you’ve got to make decisions. I toughed it out.

Mark Stiving

Alright, before we get to the final question, let’s play pricing table topics. For those of you who are not familiar with pricing table topics, I’m going to pull a random card out of my impact pricing deck of cards. I’m going to read that to Geraldine and she’s going to talk for between one and two minutes about whatever this is. By the way, you can make up anything you want. I don’t care. It doesn’t have to be true. Just don’t say lies because I don’t have to fix it.

Geraldine Carter

All right. Do I even need to answer the question?

Mark Stiving

You know, it’d be nice if you tried.

Geraldine Carter

All right, I’ll see what I can do.

Mark Stiving

Okay, so we have the nine of hearts. This one is too easy. Subscriptions have three revenue buckets: win, keep, and grow. Manage all three.

Geraldine Carter

Do you think that’s too easy? You want to give me a harder one?

Mark Stiving

No. Do it. Go.

Geraldine Carter

Alright. So, you need to manage all three buckets. Win, keep and grow. Winning, of course, is getting your clients from getting a prospect from prospect to client. Best way to manage this one is to make your ROI high for them. One of the things that providers, sellers fail to recognize is that the difference between the price – the value, excuse me – to your buyer and your price is their profit. They have a profit also in the exchange. Make that profit high and it makes it easy for you to manage the win bucket. Keeping is also simple. Make sure that you dial in your delivery. If your delivery is dialed in and your clients are delighted and you make good on your promise, they will continue to stay. But it’s up to you to make sure that you continue to provide value and then grow becomes “How do you grow your client base?” Because you have your people, you will be subject to the natural forces of attrition and customers cycling off. You’ve got to keep on growing. So, how will you think about growing your audience, capturing more market share, growing your numbers, and continuing to add value to your services? If you do all those three things, you manage win, when you manage keep, you manage grow, and you are off to a high value, high potential multiple for sale business.

Mark Stiving

Nice. Absolutely fantastic. Here’s the part that I like best about your answer, if I may: I have never heard it said that the difference between your customers value and your price is their profit. It is absolutely a true statement. I’ve just never heard it and never thought of it that way. So, I love that. That was awesome. If I could if I could correct one thing, please. When I when I say the word grow and win, keep, grow, the grow is how do I grow the amount of money I get from my current customers. So, in your world as a CPA, someone buys into my bronze package. How do I get them to move up to my silver package?

Geraldine Carter

Which is what we do, right? We find the market segment to bring them in at bronze, and then step them up into silver, and eventually up into gold. And then eventually, if the customer, the client is so successful, they cycle off the top of the gold end and they go on and they have an in-house accountant or an in-house CFO. So, we do design for that natural progression to actually cycle off intentionally.

Mark Stiving

Alright. So, Geraldine, it’s time for the last question. What is one piece of pricing advice you would give our listeners that you think could have a big impact on their business?

Geraldine Carter

We’ve touched on this a little bit, and I wouldn’t say that this advice is universal for every market segment, but for service-based business owners: It’s good for your clients to charge them more. And if you don’t believe me, I have a six-piece PDF on my website that your listeners can get if they want to read the six reasons that it’s good for your clients to charge them more, they can get at geraldinecarter.com/subscribe and if you can get your head around this idea that your clients will get better outcomes when you charge them more, it will shift how you think about your pricing.

Mark Stiving

Awesome. I’m actually to go download that so I can read it. I want to know what your six reasons are. Geraldine, thank you so much for your time today. If anybody wants to contact you, how can they do that?

Geraldine Carter

The easiest way is my email gc@geraldinecarter.com. They can also find me on LinkedIn and of course they should listen to my podcast, which I’m sure you’ll link to in the show notes. The Business Strategy for CPAs Podcast.

Mark Stiving

Well, I guess we will now.

Geraldine Carter

You better.

Mark Stiving

Episode 194 is all done. Thank you so much for listening. If you enjoyed this, would you please leave us a rating and a review? The easiest way is to go to ratethispodcast.com/impactpricing.. And finally, if you have any questions or comments about the podcast or pricing in general, feel free to email me. mark@impactpricing.com. Now go make an impact.

Thanks again to Jennings Executive Search for sponsoring our podcasts. If you’re looking to hire someone in pricing, I suggest you contact someone who knows pricing people. Contact Jennings Executive Search.

 

Tags: Accelerate Your Subscription Business, ask a pricing expert, pricing metrics, pricing strategy

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